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The three major backup programs are dump/restore, tar, and cpio. Their functionality can be easily enhanced by Perl scripts.
Linux does not have rhe traditional UNIX backup programs dump and restore. Only tar and cpio are present. It is also possible to use dump and restore in a more secure fashion over ssh.
The GNU tar supports remote devices using the same syntax as rdump. To tar to an Exabyte tape drive connected to a Sun called komodo, use:
# tar cf komodo:/dev/nsa8 . 2>&1
The same could be accomplished with by using a pipeline and rsh to send the data to a remote tape drive.
# tar cf - . | rsh hostname dd of=tape-device obs=20b
If you are worried about the security of backing up over a network you should use the ssh command instead of rsh.cpio can backup and resotr hard links and special files. This last feature makes cpio a better choice for filesystem backup. cpio does not know how to walk the directory tree and a list of files must be provided through stdin.
cpio does not support backups across the network. You can use a pipeline and rsh to send the data to a remote tape drive.
# for f in directory_list; do find $f >> backup.list done # cpio -v -o --format=newc < backup.list | ssh user@host "cat > backup_device"After the Disaster
The key question is: did your hardware survive? You have been doing regular backups so there is no need to worry about the software.
If the hardware has been damaged, the parts should be replaced before attempting to use the computer.
If your hardware is okay, check your floppies. If you are using a custom boot floppy, boot single-user (type -s at the boot: prompt). Skip the following paragraph.
If you are using the boot.flp and fixit.flp floppies, keep reading. Insert the boot.flp floppy in the first floppy drive and boot the computer. The original install menu will be displayed on the screen. Select the Fixit--Repair mode with CDROM or floppy. option. Insert the fixit.flp when prompted. restore and the other programs that you need are located in /mnt2/rescue (/mnt2/stand for FreeBSD versions older than 5.2).
Recover each file system separately.
Try to mount (e.g. mount /dev/da0a /mnt) the root partition of your first disk. If the bsdlabel was damaged, use bsdlabel to re-partition and label the disk to match the label that you printed and saved. Use newfs to re-create the file systems. Re-mount the root partition of the floppy read-write (mount -u -o rw /mnt). Use your backup program and backup tapes to recover the data for this file system (e.g. restore vrf /dev/sa0). Unmount the file system (e.g. umount /mnt). Repeat for each file system that was damaged.
Once your system is running, backup your data onto new tapes. Whatever caused the crash or data loss may strike again. Another hour spent now may save you from further distress later.
is a high-performance, enterprise-grade backup system for backing up Linux, Win32, and laptops to a server's disk. Features include clever pooling of identical files, no client-side software, and a powerful Apache/CGI user interface. It is written in Perl
ESR Backup (Easy, Secure, Remote) is a backup system for UNIX and Linux that is easy to use and configure. It automatically performs full and incremental backups on files you choose, and automatically rotates and archives your backups, encrypts archives with a 448 bit key, and can store archives on a remote server via FTP or on the local file system.
Simplebackup is a cross-platform backup program. It reads a configuration file, then it builds a compressed file for each of your backup directories or files on your backup list, and places the compressed files into another location. For example, this location can be a network mapped drive in Windows, an NFS mounted drive in Unix, another hard disk, an FTP server, an SFTP (Secure FTP) server, an HTTP (WebDAV) server, one or more email accounts, or a tape device (Unix only). This will duplicate your information, doing the so called "backup".
storebackup is a backup utility that stores files on other disks. It includes several optimizations that reduce the disk space needed and improve performance, and unifies the advantages of traditional full and incremental backups. Depending on its contents, every file is stored only once on disk. It includes tools for analyzing backup data and restoring. Once archived, files are accessible by mounting filesystems (locally, or via Samba or NFS). It is easy to install and configure.
Backup Manager is a tool for generating archives easily. It is designed for those who don't want an obfuscated tool for backing up their system. It can make tar, tar.gz, tar.bz2, and zip archives, can perform incremental backups, and can upload archives to remote hosts with FTP, SSH, or RSYNC. It can be run in a parallel mode with different configuration files. The configuration file is simple to understand. The backup process can also be customized thanks to hook scripts.
flexbackup is a configurable and easy to use Perl-based backup tool, that can backup local files as well as remote machines (using ssh). It allows the backup itself to be made with afio, cpio, tar, dump, star, or pax. It can work with tape drives, on-disk archive files, or on-disk directory trees.
dobackup.pl is a flexible Perl script to handle unattended incremental backups of multiple servers. It handles multiple media sets with automatic media preparation and rotation, configurable 'what-to-backup', global per-host exclusion patterns, and user settable 'don't-back-this-up' metafiles. Its design goal is zero-maintenance, nothing to do except change the media when told.
fsbackup is an incremental backup creation utility. It supports backup compression and encryption. Backups can be stored on the local file system, and a remote host (via SSH, or FTP). Some additional scripts allow backup SQL tables from PostgreSQL and MySQL, save system configuration files, and a list of installed packages. Backed-up files can be recovered, and system packages can be reinstalled.
Confstore is a configuration backup utility. It scans a system for all recognised configuration files and then stores them in a simple archive. It knows what to scan for by reading a definitions file. Confstore can also restore configuration from backup archives it has previously created.
NasBackup is a solution for backing up desktop PCs, laptops, and servers to network disks. It is highly configurable and uses rsync to only transfer file differences over the network.
A lightweight tar-based backup/restore tool.
An incremental network backup tool for snapshotting directories.
Partition Image is a Linux/UNIX utility similar to Symantec's Ghost. This uility saves partitions in the EXT2, Reiserfs, NTFS, HPFS, FAT16, and FAT32 file system formats to an image file. The image file can be compressed with gzip or bzip2 in order to save disk space, and it can be split in order to fit onto a series of floppy disks. This program can be useful for backup purposes. A boot/root disk is also provided, allowing you to run Partition Image without Linux installed on the hard disk.
The dump package contains both dump and restore. Dump examines files in a filesystem, determines which ones need to be backed up, and copies those files to a specified disk, tape or other storage medium. The restore command performs the inverse function of dump; it can restore a full backup of a filesystem. Subsequent incremental backups can then be layered on top of the full backup. Single files and directory subtrees may also be restored from full or partial backups.
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