**Exact Text Searching**

Aho A.V., Algorithms for finding patterns in strings, Chapter 5 (pp. 255-300)
of Leeuwen J. van (ed.) Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, Elsevier Science
Publishers, Amsterdam.

Abrahamson K., Generalized string matching, SIAM Journal on Computing, 16(6),
1039-1051, 1987.

Amir A., Landau G.M., and Vishkin U., Efficient pattern matching with scaling,
Journal of Algorithms, 13(1), 2-32, 1992.

Apostolico A., and Giancarlo R., The Boyer-Moore-Galil string searching strategies
revisited, SIAM Journal on Computing, 15(1), 98-105, 1986.

Baeza-Yates R., and Gonnet G.H., A new approach to text searching, Communications
of the ACM, 35(10), 74-82, 1992.

Baeza-Yates R., and Regnier M., Average running time of the Boyer-Moore-Horspool
algorithm, Theoretical Computer Science, 92(1), 19-31, 1992.

Baeza-Yates R., Choffrut C., and Gonnet G., On Boyer Moore Automata, Algorithmica,
12(4-5), 268-292, 1994.

Baeza-Yates R., and Fuentes L., A framework to animate string algorithms,
Information Processing Letters, 59(5), 241-244, 1996.

Baeza-Yates R., Improved string matching, Software-Practice and Experience,
19(3), 257-271, 1989.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Algorithms for String Searching: A Survey, ACM SIGIR Forum,
23(3-4), 34-58, 1989.

Baeza-Yates R., Text Retrieval: Theory and Practice, in Proc. of the 12th
IFIP World Computer Congress, 465-476, (Madrid, Spain), North-Holland, 1992.

Baeza-Yates R., A unified view to string matching algorithms, Thoery and
Pratice of Informatics, 23rd Seminar, 1-15, 1996.

Blumer A., Blumer J., Haussler D., Ehrenfeucht A., Chen M.T., and Seiferas
J., The smallest automaton recognizing the subwords of a text, Theoretical Computer
Science, 40(1), 31-55, 1985.

Boyer R.S., and Moore J.S., A fast string searching algorithm, Communications
of the ACM, 20(10), 762-772, 1977.

Breslauer D., Colussi L., and Toniolo L., Tight comparison bounds for the
string prefix matching problem, Information Processing Letters, 47(1), 51-57,
1993.

Breslauer D., Saving comparisons in the Crochemore-Perrin string matching,
Theoretical Computer Science, 158(1-2), 177-192, 1996.

Bruyere V., Baeza-Yates R., Dergrange O., and Scheihing R., About the size
of Boyer-Moore automata, in Proc. of the 3rd South American Workshop on String
Processing, 31-46, Carleton, University Press, 1996.

Charras C., and Lecroq T., Exact string matching algorithms, Technical Report,
1997.

Cole R., Hariharan R., Zwick U., and Paterson M.S., Tighter lower bounds
on the exact complexity of string matching, SIAM Journal on Computing, 24(1),
30-45, 1995.

Cole R., Tight bounds on the complexity of the Boyer-Moore pattern matching,
SIAM Journal on Computing, 23(5), 1075-1091, 1994.

Colussi L., Correctness and Efficiency of pattern matching algorithm, Information
and Computation, 95(2), 225-251, 1991.

Colussi L., Fatest pattern matching in strings, Journal of Algorithms, 16(
2), 163-189, 1994.

Crochemore M., and Rytter W., Text Algorithms, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Crochemore M., Czymaj A., Gasieniec L., Jarominek S., Lecroq T., Plandowski
W., and Rytter W., Speeding Up Two String Matching Algorithms, Algorithmica,
12(4-5), 247-267, 1994.

Crochemore M., and Lecroq T., Tight bounds on the complexity of the Apostolico-Giancarlo
algorithm, Information Processing Letters, 63(4), 195-203, 1997.

Crochemore M., and Lecroq T., Pattern matching and text compression algorithms,
in The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook, Tucker A.B., ed., CRC Press,
Boca-Raton, Chapter 8, 162-202, 1997.

Crochemore M., and Hancart C., Automata for Matching Patterns, Handbook of
Formal Languages, Rosenberg C., Salamaa A. eds, 2, 399-462, Springer-Verlag,
1997.

Crochemore M., and Hancart C., Pattern matching in strings, in Algorithms
and theory of computation Handbook, Mikhail J., Atallah, ed. CRC Press, Boca
Raton, 1998.

Crochemore M., String matching on ordered alphabets, Theoretical Computer
Science, 92(1), 33-47, 1992.

Crochemore M., Off-line serial exact string searching, in Pattern Matching
Algorithms, Apostolico A., Z. Galil, ed., Oxford University Press, New York,
Chapter 1, 1-53, 1997.

Davies G., and Bowsher S., Algorithms for pattern matching, Software-Practice
and Experience, 16(6), 575-601, 1996.

Ferragina P., and Grossi R., Optimal On-line search and sublinear time update
in strings, SIAM Journal on Computing, 27(3), 713-736, 1998.

Galil Z., and Giancarlo R., On the exact complexity of string matching: Lower
Bounds, SIAM Journal on Computing, 20(6), 1008-1020, 1991.

Galil Z., and Giancarlo R., On the exact complexity of string matching: Upper
Bound, SIAM Journal on Computing, 21(3), 407-437, 1992.

Galil Z., On improving the worst case running time of the Boyer-Moore algorithm,
Communications of the ACM, 22(9), 505-508, 1979.

Gasieniec L., Plandowski W., and Rytter E., The zooming method: a resursive
approach to time-space algorithm, Theoretical Computer Science, 147(1-20), 19-30,
1995.

Gasieniec L., Plandowski W., and Rytter W., Sequential sampling: a new approach
to constant space pattern matching, in Proc. of the 6th Annual Symposium on
Combinatorial Pattern Matching, LNCS 937, 78-89, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995.

Gonnet G.H., and Baeza-Yates R.A., An analysis of the Karp-Rabin string matching
algorithm, Information Processing Letters, 34(5), 271-274, 1990.

Gonnet G.H., and Baeza-Yates R., Handbook of Algorithms and Data Structures
in Pascal and C, 2nd edition, Addison-Wesley, Workingham, 251-288, 1991.

Gusfield D., Algorithms on strings, trees and sequences, Gambridge University
Press, 1997.

Hancert C., On Simon?s string searching algorithm, Information Processing
Letters, 47(2), 95-99, 1993.

Horspool R.N., Practical fast searching in strings, Software-Practice and
Experience, 10(6), 501-506, 1980.

Hume A., and Sunday D., Fast string searching, Software-Practice and Experience,
21(11), 1221-1248, 1991.

Knuth D.E., Morris J.H., and Pratt V.R., Fast pattern matching in strings,
SIAM Journal on Computing, 6(2), 323-350, 1977.

Lecroq T., A variation on the Boyer-Moore algorithm, Theoretical Computer
Science, 92(1), 119-144, 1992.

Lecroq T., Experimental results on string matching algorithms, Software-Practice
and Experience, 25(7), 727-765, 1995.

Lecroq T., Experiments on string matching in memory structures, Software-Practice
and Experience, 28(5), 561-568, 1998.

Liu Z., Du X., and Ishii N., An improved adaptive string searching algorithm,
Software-Practice and Experience, 28(2), 191-198, 1998.

Manolopoulos Y., and Faloutsos C., Experimenting with pattern matching algorithms,
Information Sciences, 90(1-4), 75-89, 1996.

Perleberg C., Single character searching methods and the shift-or pattern
matching algorithm, Information Processing Letters, 50(5), 269-275, 1994.

Raita T., Tunning the Boyer-Moore-Horspool string searching algorithm, Software-Practice
and Experience, 22(10), 879-884, 1992.

Reingold E., Urban K.J., and Gries D., K-M-P string matching revisited, Information
Processing Letters, 64(5), 217-223, 1997.

Sedgewick R., Algorithms, 2nd edition, Addison Wesley, Reading Mass, 277-303,
1988.

Smit G. De V., A Comparison of Three String Matching Algorithms, Software-Practice
and Experience, 12(1), 57-66, 1982.

Smith P., Experiments with a very fast substring search algorithm, Software-Practice
and Experience, 21(10), 1065-1074, 1991.

Smith P., On tuning the Boyer-Moore-Horspool string searching algorithm,
Software-Practice and Experience, 24(4), 425-436, 1994.

Stephen A.G., String Search, Techinal Report, School of Electronic Engineering
Science, 1992.

Sunday D., A very fast substring search algorithm, Communications of the
ACM, 33(8), 132-142, 1990.

Tarhio J., and Peltora H., String matching in the DNA alphabet, Software-Practice
and Experience, 27(7), 851-861, 1997.

Watson B., The performance of single and multiple keyword pattern matching
algorithms, in Proc. of the 3rd South American Workshop on String Processing,
280-294, Carleton, University Press, 1996.

Watson B., SPARE Parts: A C++ toolkit for string Pattern Recognition, in
Proc. of the Second Prague stringologic Club Workshop, 47-60, 1997.

Wu S., and Manber U., Fast text searching allowing errors, Communications
of the ACM, 35(10), 83-91, 1992.

**Approximate Text Searching**

Aho A., Corasick M., Efficient string matching: an aid to bibliographic search,
Communications of the ACM, 18(6), 333-340, 1975.

Arlazarov V.L., Dinic E.A., Kronrod M.A., Faradzev I.A., On economic construction
of the transitive closure of a directed graph, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 194, 487-488,
1970 (in Russian). English translation in Soviet Math. Dokl., 11,1209-1210,
1975.

Aho A.V., Algorithms for finding patterns in strings, Chapter 5 (pp. 2 55-300)
of Leeuwen J. van (ed.) Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, Elsevier Science
Publishers, Amsterdam.

Aoe J., Computer Algorithms - String Pattern Matching Strategies, IEEE Computer
Society Press, Los Alamitos, California, 1994.

Blumer A., Blumer J., Haussler D., Ehrenfeucht A., Chen M.T., Seiferas J.,
The smallest automaton recognizing the subwords of a text, Theoretical Computer
Science, 40, 31-55, 1985.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Text Retrieval: Theory and practice, in Proc. 12th IFIP
World Computer Congress, (Madrid, Spain), 1992.

Baeza-Yates R.A., A unified view of string matching algorithms, In SOFSEM
96: Theory and Practice of Informatics, 1-15, Springer-Verlag, 1996.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Gonnet G.H., A new approach to text searching, Communications
of the ACM, 35(10), 74-82, 1992.

Baeza Yates R.A., Gonnet G., Fast string matching with mismatches, Information
and Computation, 108(2), 187-199, 1994.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Navarro G., A fast heuristic for approximate string matching,
in Proc WSP 96, 47-63, Carleton University Press, 1996.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Navarro G., A faster algorithm for approximate string matching,
In Proc Combinatorial Pattern Matching 96, 1-23, Springer-Verlag, 1996.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Perleberg C.H., Fast and practical approximate pattern
matching, in Proc Combinatorial Pattern Matching, CPM 92, 185-192, 1992.

Baeza-Yates R.A., Perleberg C.H., Fast and practical approximate string matching,
Information Processing Letters, 59, 21-27, 1996.

Chang W.I, Lampe J., Theoretical and Emprirical Comparisons of Approximate
String Matching Algorithms, In Proc. 3rd Combinatorial Pattern Matching, 175-184,
University of Arizona, USA, 1992.

Chang W., Lawler E., Sublinear approximate string matching and biological
applications, Algorithmica, 12(4/5), 327-344, 1994.

Chang W, Marr T., Approximate string matching and local similarity, In Proc
Combinatorial Pattern Matching 94, 259-273, Springer-Verlag, 1994.

Crochemore M., String matching with constraints, in Proc. MFCS’ 88, 324,
44-58, 1988.

Commentz-Walter B., A string matching algorithm fast on the average, in Proc.
ICALP 79, 118-132, Springer-Verlag, 1979.

Dermouche A., A fast algorithm for string matching with mismatches, Information
Processing Letters, 55, 105-110, 1995.

Galil Z., Giancarlo R., Improved string matching with k mismatches, Sigact
News, 17, 52-54, 1986.

Galil Z., Giancarlo R., Data Structures and Algorithms for Approximate String
Matching, Journal of Complexit, 4, 33-72, 1988.

Giegerich R., Kurtz S., Hischke F., Ohlebusch E., A general technique to
improve filter algorithms for approximate string matching, In Proc WSP 97, 38-52,
Carleton University Press, 1997.

Grossi R., Luccio F., Simple and efficient string matching with k mismatches,
Information Processing Letters, 33, 113-120, 1989.

Galil Z., Park K., An improved Algorithm for Approximate String Matching,
SIAM Journal of Computing, 19(6), 989-999, 1990.

Hall P., Dowling G., Approximate string matching, ACM Computing Surveys,
12(4), 381-402, 1980.

Harel D., Tarhjan R.E., Fast algorithms for finding nearest common ancestors,
SIAM Journal on Computing, 13(2), 338-355, 1984.

Jokinen P., Tarhio J., Ukkonen E., A Comparison of Approximate String Matching
Algorithms, Software-Practice and Experience, 26(12), 1439-1458, 1996.

Kurtz S., Approximate string searching under weighted edit distance, in Proc.
WSP 96, 156-170, Carleton University Press, 1996.

Landau G.M., Vishkin U., Efficient String Matching with k Mismatches, Theoretical
Computer Science, 43, 239-249, 1986.

Landau G.M., Vishkin U., Fast String Matching with k Differences, Journal
of Computer and System Sciences, 37, 63-78, 1988.

Landau G.M., Vishkin U., Fast Parallel and Serial Approximate String Matching,
Journal of Algorithms, 10, 157-169, 1989.

McCreight E., A space-economical suffix tree construction algorithm, Journal
of the ACM, 23(2), 262-272, 1976.

Michailidis P., Margaritis K., String Matching Algorithms, Technical Report,
Dept. of Applied Informatics, University of Macedonia, 1999 (in Greek).

Masek W.J., Paterson M.S., A Faster Algorithm Computing String Edit Distances,
Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 20, 18-31, 1980.

Myers G., A fast bit-vector algorithm for approximate pattern matching based
on dynamic programming. In Proc Combinatorial Pattern Matching 98, 1-13, Springer-Verlag,
1998.

Navarro G., Mutiple approximate string matching by counting, in Proc WSP
97, 125-139, Carleton University Press, 1997.

Navarro G., A partial deterministic automaton for approximate string matching,
in Proc WSP 97, 112-124, Carleton University Press, 1997.

Navarro G., Approximate Text Searching, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Chile,
Dept. of Computer Science, 1998.

Navarro G., Raffinot M., A bit-parallel approach to suffix automata: Fast
extended string matching, in Proc Combinatorial Patern Matching 98, 14-33, Springer-Verlag,
1998.

Sellers P.H., The Theory and Computation of Evolutionary Distance: Pattern
Recognition, Journal of Algorithms, 1, 359-373, 1980.

Sutinen E., Tarhio J., On using q-gram locations in approximate string matching,
In Proc ESA 95, 327-340, Springer-Verlag, 1995.

Stephen G. A., String Searching Algorithms, World Scientific Press, 1994.

Takaoka T., Approximate pattern matching with samples, In Proc. ISAAC 94,
234-242, Springer-Verlag, 1994.

Tarhio J., Ukkonen E., Approximate Boyer-Moore String Matching, SIAM Journal
on Computing, 22(2), 243-260, 1993.

Ukkonen E., Algorithms for Approximate String Matching, Information and Control,
64, 100-118, 1985.

Ukkonen E., Finding Approximate Patterns in Strings, Journal of Algorithms,
6, 132-137, 1985.

Ukkonen E., Approximate string matching with q-grams and maximal matches,
Theoretical Computer Science, 1, 191-211, 1992.

Ukkonen E., Wood D., Approximate String Matching with Suffix Automata, Algorithmica,
10, 353-364, 1993.

Weiner P., Linear pattern matching algorithm, in Proc. 14th IEEE Symposium
on Swithching and Automata Theory, 1-11, 1973.

Wagner R.A., Fischer M.J., The String to String Correction Problem, Journal
of the Association for Computing Machinery, 21(1), 168-173, 1974.

Wu S., Manber U., Fast text searching allowing errors, Communications of
the ACM, 35(10), 83-91, 1992.

Wu S., Manber U., Myers G., A Subquadratic algorithm for approximate limited
expression matching, Algorithmica, 15, 50-67, 1996.

Wright A., Approximate string matching using within-word parallelism, Software-Practice
and Experience, 24( 4), 337-362, 1994.

Boyer-Moore algorithm is the fastest known string searching algorithm, at least
in its best case. For a text of length n and a fixed pattern of length m the best
performance of the algorithm is n/m and the worst case is n*m. The algorithm is
very widely used in software engineering. The notable feature of the algorithm,
apparent from its running time formula, is that the longer the pattern we are looking
for, the faster the algorithm will be usually able to find it.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains
copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically
authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available
in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political,
human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice
issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such
copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright
Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on
this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes. If you wish to use
copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go
beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no
less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.