SLES Log rotation

News

Enterprise Logs Collection and Analysis Infrastructure

Recommended Links Reference Log rotation logrotate
Log rotation in RHEL/Centos/Oracle linux Log rotation in Solaris Perl Log Analysis and Management Tools Perl-Logrotate Humor Etc

Log rotation mechanism in SLES is based on logrotate which is installed by default. System packages as well as some applications that produce log files (for example, apache2) put their own "slices" of configuration files in the /etc/logrotate.d/ directory.

Default configuration file

# see "man logrotate" for details
# rotate log files weekly
weekly

# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs
rotate 4

# create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones
create

# use date as a suffix of the rotated file
dateext

# uncomment this if you want your log files compressed
#compress

# comment these to switch compression to use gzip or another
# compression scheme
compresscmd /usr/bin/bzip2
uncompresscmd /usr/bin/bunzip2

# RPM packages drop log rotation information into this directory
include /etc/logrotate.d

The create option pays heed to the modes and ownerships of files specified in /etc/permissions*. See  chkstat utility and permissions files in SUSE (/etc/permissions.local, .easy and .secure)  

If you modify these settings, make sure no conflicts arise.

As you can see by default logs are rotated weekly and kept four weeks with no compression. If the package is installed from RPMs is is expected that it will drop log rotation script in /etc/logrotate.d .

Depending on the number of daemons installed during the initial install after RHEL installation the directory logrotate.d contains a dozen of scripts, one for each installed package. For example:

-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 144 Dec 17  2009 acpid
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 288 Jun 28  2007 conman
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  71 Jan 19  2011 cups
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 167 Oct  6 12:12 httpd
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 571 Aug 21  2006 mgetty
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 136 Aug 12  2008 ppp
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 442 Jul 16  2008 psacct
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  61 Sep 30 05:41 rpm
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 232 Jul 29  2011 samba
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 121 May 21  2009 setroubleshoot
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 543 Feb 16  2010 squid
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  71 Jun  6  2011 subscription-manager
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 306 Jan  5  2010 syslog
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  48 Aug 23  2006 tux
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  32 Oct 26  2009 up2date
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 188 Mar 28  2011 vsftpd.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 100 Dec 14  2009 wpa_supplicant
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 100 Jun 14  2011 yum

The most important of them is syslog. It is pretty small, less the 10 lines:

syslog
/var/log/messages /var/log/secure /var/log/maillog /var/log/spooler /var/log/boot.log /var/log/cron {
    sharedscripts
    postrotate
        /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/syslogd.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true
        /bin/kill -HUP `cat /var/run/rsyslogd.pid 2> /dev/null` 2> /dev/null || true
    endscript
}

Option sharedscripts blocks repeated invocation of the daemon for each log specified. Here is how this item semantic is defined in the man page:

Normally, prerotate and postrotate scripts are run for each log which is rotated and the absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. That means a single script may be run multiple times for log file entries which match multiple files (such as the /var/log/news/* example). If sharedscripts is specified, the scripts are only run once, no matter how many logs match the wildcarded pattern, and whole pattern is passed to them. However, if none of the logs in the pattern require rotating, the scripts will not be run at all. If the scripts exit with error, the remaining actions will not be executed for any logs. This option overrides the nosharedscripts option and implies create option.

Apache logs rotation is performed using the following settings:

httpd
/var/log/httpd/*log {
    missingok
    notifempty
    sharedscripts
    postrotate
        /sbin/service httpd reload > /dev/null 2>/dev/null || true
    endscript
}

Default cron script for invocation of logrotate is /etc/cron.daily/logrotate:

/usr/sbin/logrotate /etc/logrotate.conf
EXITVALUE=$?
if [ $EXITVALUE != 0 ]; then
    /usr/bin/logger -t logrotate "ALERT exited abnormally with [$EXITVALUE]"
fi
exit 0

Top Visited
Switchboard
Latest
Past week
Past month

NEWS CONTENTS

Old News ;-)

[Feb 07, 2012] Manage Linux log files with Logrotate

TechRepublic

Setting defaults for logrotate
Default configuration settings are normally placed close to the beginning of the logrotate.conf file. These settings are usually in effect system-wide. The default settings for logrotate on this system are established in the first 12 lines of the file.

The third line
weekly

specifies that all log files will be rotated weekly.

The fifth line
rotate 4

specifies that four copies of old log files are retained before the files are cycled. Cycling refers to removing the oldest log files and replacing them with new copies.

The seventh line
errors root

sends all logrotate error messages to root.

The ninth line
create

configures logrotate to automatically create new log files. The new log files will have the same permissions, owner, and group as the file being rotated.

The eleventh line
#compress

prevents logrotate from compressing log files when they are rotated. Compression is enabled by removing the comment (#) from this line.

Using the include option
The include option allows the administrator to take log file rotation information, which may be installed in several files, and use it in the main configuration file. When logrotate finds the include option on a line in logrotate.conf, the information in the file specified is read as if it appeared in /etc/logrotate.conf.

Line 13 in /etc/logrotate.conf
include /etc/logrotate.d

tells logrotate to be read in the log rotation parameters, which are stored in the files contained in the /etc/logrotate.d directory. The include option is very useful when RPM packages are installed on a system. RPM packagesí log rotation parameters will typically install in the /etc/logrotate.d directory.

The include option is important. Some of the applications that install their log rotation parameters to /etc/logrotate.d by default are apache, linuxconf, samba, cron, and syslog. The include option allows the parameters from each of these files to be read into logrotate.conf.

Using the include option in /etc/logrotate.conf allows the administrator to configure a rotation policy for these packages through a single configuration file.

Using include to override defaults
When a file is read by /etc/logrotate.conf, the rotation parameters specified in the include will override the parameters specified in the logrotate file. An example of /etc/logrotate.conf being overridden is shown below:
#Log rotation parameters for linuxconf
/var/log/htmlaccess.log
{ errors jim
notifempty
nocompress
weekly
prerotate
/usr/bin/chattr -a /var/log/htmlaccess.log
endscript
postrotate
/usr/bin/chattr +a /var/log/htmlaccess.log
endscript
}
/var/log/netconf.log
{ nocompress
monthly
}

In this example, when the /etc/logrotate.d/linuxconf file is read by /etc/logrotate.conf, the following options will override the defaults specified in /etc/logrotate.conf:
Notifempty
errors jim

The nocompress and weekly options do not override any options contained in /etc/logrotate.conf.

Setting parameters for a specific file
Configuration parameters for a specific file are often required. A common example would be to include a section in the /etc/logrotate.conf file to rotate the /var/log/wtmp file once per month and keep only one copy of the log. When configuration is required for a specific file, the following format is used:
#comments
/full/path/to/file
{
option(s)
}

The following entry would cause the /var/log/wtmp file to be rotated once a month, with one backup copy retained:
#Use logrotate to rotate wtmp
/var/log/wtmp
{
monthly
rotate 1
}
Although the opening bracket may appear on a line with other text or commands, the closing bracket must be on a line by itself.
Using the prerotate and postrotate options
The section of code below shows a typical script in /etc/logrotate.d/syslog. This section applies only to /var/log/messages. On a production server, /etc/logrotate.d/syslog would probably contain similar entries.
/var/log/messages
{
prerotate
/usr/bin/chattr -a /var/log/messages
endscript
postrotate
/usr/bin/kill -HUP syslogd
/usr/bin/chattr +a /var/log/messages
endscript
}

The format for this script uses the following methods:


Running logrotate
There are three steps involved in running logrotate:
  1. Identify the log files on your system.
  2. Create rotation schedules and parameters for the log files.
  3. Run logrotate through the cron daemon.

The code below shows the default cronjob shipped with Red Hat Linux to allow logrotate to run daily:
#/etc/cron.daily/logrotate
#! /bin/sh

/usr/sbin/logrotate /etc/logrotate.conf

This cronjob allows logrotate to run daily with the rotation parameter specified in /etc/logrotate.conf.

Conclusion
Log rotation is the first step in log file management. The logrotate utility provides the Linux administrator with the ability to maintain a log file rotation policy and to retain copies of log files to assist in establishing patterns related to system usage. In this Daily Drill Down, we looked at the installation and configuration of logrotate, used the include option to read configuration files related to RPM packages, and ran logrotate as a cronjob. We also discussed the proper methods for restarting logrotate after the log rotation procedure is completed.
The authors and editors have taken care in preparation of the content contained herein but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for any damages. Always have a verified backup before making any changes.


Recommended Links

Softpanorama hot topic of the month

Softpanorama Recommended

Configuring logrotate Red Hat documentation

Slicehost Articles- Understanding logrotate on RHEL - part 1

15.3. Configuring Logs

Log Rotation for MySQL using logrotate

Reference

logrotate [-dv] [-f|--force] [-s|--state file] config_file ..

logrotate is designed to ease administration of systems that generate large numbers of log files. It allows automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of log files. Each log file may be handled daily, weekly, monthly, or when it grows too large.

Normally, logrotate is run as a daily cron job. It will not modify a log multiple times in one day unless the criterium for that log is based on the log's size and logrotate is being run multiple times each day, or unless the -f or -force option is used.

Any number of config files may be given on the command line. Later config files may override the options given in earlier files, so the order in which the logrotate config files are listed is important. Normally, a single config file which includes any other config files which are needed should be used. See below for more information on how to use the include directive to accomplish this. If a directory is given on the command line, every file in that directory is used as a config file.

If no command line arguments are given, logrotate will print version and copyright information, along with a short usage summary. If any errors occur while rotating logs, logrotate will exit with non-zero status.

Options

-d

Turns on debug mode and implies -v. In debug mode, no changes will be made to the logs or to the logrotate state file.

-f, --force
Tells logrotate to force the rotation, even if it doesn't think this is necessary. Sometimes this is useful after adding new entries to a logrotate config file, or if old log files have been removed by hand, as the new files will be created, and logging will continue correctly.
-m, --mail <command>
Tells logrotate which command to use when mailing logs. This command should accept two arguments: 1) the subject of the message, and 2) the recipient. The command must then read a message on standard input and mail it to the recipient. The default mail command is /bin/mail -s.
-s, --state <statefile>
Tells logrotate to use an alternate state file. This is useful if logrotate is being run as a different user for various sets of log files. The default state file is /var/lib/logrotate.status.
--usage
Prints a short usage message.
-v, --verbose
Turns on verbose mode.

Configuration File

logrotate reads everything about the log files it should be handling from the series of configuration files specified on the command line. Each configuration file can set global options (local definitions override global ones, and later definitions override earlier ones) and specify logfiles to rotate. A simple configuration file looks like this:

# sample logrotate configuration file
compress

/var/log/messages {
    rotate 5
    weekly
    postrotate
        /usr/bin/killall -HUP syslogd
    endscript
}

"/var/log/httpd/access.log" /var/log/httpd/error.log {
    rotate 5
    mail www@my.org
    size 100k
    sharedscripts
    postrotate
        /usr/bin/killall -HUP httpd
    endscript
}

/var/log/news/* {
    monthly
    rotate 2
    olddir /var/log/news/old
    missingok
    postrotate
        kill -HUP 'cat /var/run/inn.pid'
    endscript
    nocompress
}
The first few lines set global options; in the example, logs are compressed after they are rotated. Note that comments may appear anywhere in the config file as long as the first non-whitespace character on the line is a #.

The next section of the config files defined how to handle the log file /var/log/messages. The log will go through five weekly rotations before being removed. After the log file has been rotated (but before the old version of the log has been compressed), the command /sbin/killall -HUP syslogd will be executed.

The next section defines the parameters for both /var/log/httpd/access.log and /var/log/httpd/error.log. They are rotated whenever it grows over 100k in size, and the old logs files are mailed (uncompressed) to www@my.org after going through 5 rotations, rather than being removed. The sharedscripts means that the postrotate script will only be run once (after the old logs have been compressed), not once for each log which is rotated. Note that the double quotes around the first filename at the beginning of this section allows logrotate to rotate logs with spaces in the name. Normal shell quoting rules apply, with ', ", and \ characters supported.

The last section defines the parameters for all of the files in /var/log/news. Each file is rotated on a monthly basis. This is considered a single rotation directive and if errors occur for more than one file, the log files are not compressed.

Please use wildcards with caution. If you specify *, logrotate will rotate all files, including previously rotated ones. A way around this is to use the olddir directive or a more exact wildcard (such as *.log).

Here is more information on the directives which may be included in a logrotate configuration file:

compress
Old versions of log files are compressed with gzip(1) by default. See also nocompress.
compresscmd
Specifies which command to use to compress log files. The default is gzip. See also compress.
uncompresscmd
Specifies which command to use to uncompress log files. The default is gunzip.
compressext
Specifies which extension to use on compressed logfiles, if compression is enabled. The default follows that of the configured compression command.
compressoptions
Command line options may be passed to the compression program, if one is in use. The default, for gzip(1), is "-9" (maximum compression).
copy

Make a copy of the log file, but don't change the original at all. This option can be used, for instance, to make a snapshot of the current log file, or when some other utility needs to truncate or parse the file. When this option is used, the create option will have no effect, as the old log file stays in place.

copytruncate
Truncate the original log file in place after creating a copy, instead of moving the old log file and optionally creating a new one. It can be used when some program cannot be told to close its logfile and thus might continue writing (appending) to the previous log file forever. Note that there is a very small time slice between copying the file and truncating it, so some logging data might be lost. When this option is used, the create option will have no effect, as the old log file stays in place.
create mode owner group
Immediately after rotation (before the postrotate script is run) the log file is created (with the same name as the log file just rotated). mode specifies the mode for the log file in octal (the same as chmod(2)), owner specifies the user name who will own the log file, and group specifies the group the log file will belong to. Any of the log file attributes may be omitted, in which case those attributes for the new file will use the same values as the original log file for the omitted attributes. This option can be disabled using the nocreate option.
daily

Log files are rotated every day.

dateext
Archive old versions of log files adding a daily extension like YYYYMMDD instead of simply adding a number. The extension may be configured using the dateformat option.
dateformat format_string
Specify the extension for dateext using the notation similar to strftime(3) function. Only %Y %m %d and %s specifiers are allowed. The default value is -%Y%m%d. Note that also the character separating log name from the extension is part of the dateformat string. The system clock must be set past Sep 9th 2001 for %s to work correctly. Note that the datestamps generated by this format must be lexically sortable (i.e., first the year, then the month then the day. e.g., 2001/12/01 is ok, but 01/12/2001 is not, since 01/11/2002 would sort lower while it is later). This is because when using the rotate option, logrotate sorts all rotated filenames to find out which logfiles are older and should be removed.
delaycompress
Postpone compression of the previous log file to the next rotation cycle. This only has effect when used in combination with compress. It can be used when some program cannot be told to close its logfile and thus might continue writing to the previous log file for some time.
extension ext
Log files with ext extension can keep it after the rotation. If compression is used, the compression extension (normally .gz) appears after ext. For example you have a logfile named mylog.foo and want to rotate it to mylog.1.foo.gz instead of mylog.foo.1.gz.
ifempty
Rotate the log file even if it is empty, overriding the notifempty option (ifempty is the default).
include file_or_directory
Reads the file given as an argument as if it was included inline where the include directive appears. If a directory is given, most of the files in that directory are read in alphabetic order before processing of the including file continues. The only files which are ignored are files which are not regular files (such as directories and named pipes) and files whose names end with one of the taboo extensions, as specified by the tabooext directive. The include directive may not appear inside a log file definition.
mail address
When a log is rotated out-of-existence, it is mailed to address. If no mail should be generated by a particular log, the nomail directive may be used.
mailfirst
When using the mail command, mail the just-rotated file, instead of the about-to-expire file.
maillast
When using the mail command, mail the about-to-expire file, instead of the just-rotated file (this is the default).
maxage count
Remove rotated logs older than <count> days. The age is only checked if the logfile is to be rotated. The files are mailed to the configured address if maillast and mail are configured.
minsize size
Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes, but not before the additionally specified time interval (daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly). The related size option is similar except that it is mutually exclusive with the time interval options, and it causes log files to be rotated without regard for the last rotation time. When minsize is used, both the size and timestamp of a log file are considered.
missingok
If the log file is missing, go on to the next one without issuing an error message. See also nomissingok.
monthly
Log files are rotated the first time logrotate is run in a month (this is normally on the first day of the month).
nocompress
Old versions of log files are not compressed. See also compress.
nocopy

Do not copy the original log file and leave it in place. (this overrides the copy option).

nocopytruncate
Do not truncate the original log file in place after creating a copy (this overrides the copytruncate option).
nocreate
New log files are not created (this overrides the create option).
nodelaycompress
Do not postpone compression of the previous log file to the next rotation cycle (this overrides the delaycompress option).
nodateext
Do not archive old versions of log files with date extension (this overrides the dateext option).
nomail

Don't mail old log files to any address.

nomissingok
If a log file does not exist, issue an error. This is the default.
noolddir
Logs are rotated in the same directory the log normally resides in (this overrides the olddir option).
nosharedscripts
Run prerotate and postrotate scripts for every log file which is rotated (this is the default, and overrides the sharedscripts option). The absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. If the scripts exit with error, the remaining actions will not be executed for the affected log only.
noshred
Do not use shred when deleting old log files. See also shred.
notifempty
Do not rotate the log if it is empty (this overrides the ifempty option).
olddir directory
Logs are moved into directory for rotation. The directory must be on the same physical device as the log file being rotated, and is assumed to be relative to the directory holding the log file unless an absolute path name is specified. When this option is used all old versions of the log end up in directory. This option may be overridden by the noolddir option.
postrotate/endscript
The lines between postrotate and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) after the log file is rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Normally, the absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. If sharedscripts is specified, whole pattern is passed to the script. See also prerotate. See sharedscripts and nosharedscripts for error handling.
prerotate/endscript
The lines between prerotate and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) before the log file is rotated and only if the log will actually be rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Normally, the absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. If sharedscripts is specified, whole pattern is passed to the script. See also postrotate. See sharedscripts and nosharedscripts for error handling.
firstaction/endscript
The lines between firstaction and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) once before all log files that match the wildcarded pattern are rotated, before prerotate script is run and only if at least one log will actually be rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Whole pattern is passed to the script as first argument. If the script exits with error, no further processing is done. See also lastaction.
lastaction/endscript
The lines between lastaction and endscript (both of which must appear on lines by themselves) are executed (using /bin/sh) once after all log files that match the wildcarded pattern are rotated, after postrotate script is run and only if at least one log is rotated. These directives may only appear inside a log file definition. Whole pattern is passed to the script as first argument. If the script exits with error, just an error message is shown (as this is the last action). See also firstaction.
rotate count
Log files are rotated count times before being removed or mailed to the address specified in a mail directive. If count is 0, old versions are removed rather than rotated.
size size
Log files are rotated when they grow bigger than size bytes. If size is followed by k, the size is assumed to be in kilobytes. If the M is used, the size is in megabytes, and if G is used, the size is in gigabytes. So size 100, size 100k, size 100M and size 100Gare all valid.
sharedscripts
Normally, prerotate and postrotate scripts are run for each log which is rotated and the absolute path to the log file is passed as first argument to the script. That means a single script may be run multiple times for log file entries which match multiple files (such as the /var/log/news/* example). If sharedscripts is specified, the scripts are only run once, no matter how many logs match the wildcarded pattern, and whole pattern is passed to them. However, if none of the logs in the pattern require rotating, the scripts will not be run at all. If the scripts exit with error, the remaining actions will not be executed for any logs. This option overrides the nosharedscripts option and implies create option.
shred

Delete log files using shred -u instead of unlink(). This should ensure that logs are not readable after their scheduled deletion; this is off by default. See also noshred.

shredcycles count
Asks GNU shred(1) to overwite log files count times before deletion. Without this option, shred's default will be used.
start count
This is the number to use as the base for rotation. For example, if you specify 0, the logs will be created with a .0 extension as they are rotated from the original log files. If you specify 9, log files will be created with a .9, skipping 0-8. Files will still be rotated the number of times specified with the count directive.
tabooext [+] list
The current taboo extension list is changed (see the include directive for information on the taboo extensions). If a + precedes the list of extensions, the current taboo extension list is augmented, otherwise it is replaced. At startup, the taboo extension list contains .rpmorig, .rpmsave, ,v, .swp, .rpmnew, ~, .cfsaved and .rhn-cfg-tmp-*.
weekly

Log files are rotated if the current weekday is less than the weekday of the last rotation or if more than a week has passed since the last rotation. This is normally the same as rotating logs on the first day of the week, but it works better if logrotate is not run every night.

yearly

Log files are rotated if the current year is not the same as the last rotation.

Files

/var/lib/logrotate.status

Default state file.

/etc/logrotate.conf

 



Etc

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of environmental, political, human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, the material on this site is distributed without profit exclusivly for research and educational purposes.   If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. 

ABUSE: IPs or network segments from which we detect a stream of probes might be blocked for no less then 90 days. Multiple types of probes increase this period.  

Society

Groupthink : Two Party System as Polyarchy : Corruption of Regulators : Bureaucracies : Understanding Micromanagers and Control Freaks : Toxic Managers :   Harvard Mafia : Diplomatic Communication : Surviving a Bad Performance Review : Insufficient Retirement Funds as Immanent Problem of Neoliberal Regime : PseudoScience : Who Rules America : Neoliberalism  : The Iron Law of Oligarchy : Libertarian Philosophy

Quotes

War and Peace : Skeptical Finance : John Kenneth Galbraith :Talleyrand : Oscar Wilde : Otto Von Bismarck : Keynes : George Carlin : Skeptics : Propaganda  : SE quotes : Language Design and Programming Quotes : Random IT-related quotesSomerset Maugham : Marcus Aurelius : Kurt Vonnegut : Eric Hoffer : Winston Churchill : Napoleon Bonaparte : Ambrose BierceBernard Shaw : Mark Twain Quotes

Bulletin:

Vol 25, No.12 (December, 2013) Rational Fools vs. Efficient Crooks The efficient markets hypothesis : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2013 : Unemployment Bulletin, 2010 :  Vol 23, No.10 (October, 2011) An observation about corporate security departments : Slightly Skeptical Euromaydan Chronicles, June 2014 : Greenspan legacy bulletin, 2008 : Vol 25, No.10 (October, 2013) Cryptolocker Trojan (Win32/Crilock.A) : Vol 25, No.08 (August, 2013) Cloud providers as intelligence collection hubs : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : Inequality Bulletin, 2009 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Copyleft Problems Bulletin, 2004 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Energy Bulletin, 2010 : Malware Protection Bulletin, 2010 : Vol 26, No.1 (January, 2013) Object-Oriented Cult : Political Skeptic Bulletin, 2011 : Vol 23, No.11 (November, 2011) Softpanorama classification of sysadmin horror stories : Vol 25, No.05 (May, 2013) Corporate bullshit as a communication method  : Vol 25, No.06 (June, 2013) A Note on the Relationship of Brooks Law and Conway Law

History:

Fifty glorious years (1950-2000): the triumph of the US computer engineering : Donald Knuth : TAoCP and its Influence of Computer Science : Richard Stallman : Linus Torvalds  : Larry Wall  : John K. Ousterhout : CTSS : Multix OS Unix History : Unix shell history : VI editor : History of pipes concept : Solaris : MS DOSProgramming Languages History : PL/1 : Simula 67 : C : History of GCC developmentScripting Languages : Perl history   : OS History : Mail : DNS : SSH : CPU Instruction Sets : SPARC systems 1987-2006 : Norton Commander : Norton Utilities : Norton Ghost : Frontpage history : Malware Defense History : GNU Screen : OSS early history

Classic books:

The Peter Principle : Parkinson Law : 1984 : The Mythical Man-MonthHow to Solve It by George Polya : The Art of Computer Programming : The Elements of Programming Style : The Unix Haterís Handbook : The Jargon file : The True Believer : Programming Pearls : The Good Soldier Svejk : The Power Elite

Most popular humor pages:

Manifest of the Softpanorama IT Slacker Society : Ten Commandments of the IT Slackers Society : Computer Humor Collection : BSD Logo Story : The Cuckoo's Egg : IT Slang : C++ Humor : ARE YOU A BBS ADDICT? : The Perl Purity Test : Object oriented programmers of all nations : Financial Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2008 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2010 : The Most Comprehensive Collection of Editor-related Humor : Programming Language Humor : Goldman Sachs related humor : Greenspan humor : C Humor : Scripting Humor : Real Programmers Humor : Web Humor : GPL-related Humor : OFM Humor : Politically Incorrect Humor : IDS Humor : "Linux Sucks" Humor : Russian Musical Humor : Best Russian Programmer Humor : Microsoft plans to buy Catholic Church : Richard Stallman Related Humor : Admin Humor : Perl-related Humor : Linus Torvalds Related humor : PseudoScience Related Humor : Networking Humor : Shell Humor : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2011 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2012 : Financial Humor Bulletin, 2013 : Java Humor : Software Engineering Humor : Sun Solaris Related Humor : Education Humor : IBM Humor : Assembler-related Humor : VIM Humor : Computer Viruses Humor : Bright tomorrow is rescheduled to a day after tomorrow : Classic Computer Humor

The Last but not Least


Copyright © 1996-2016 by Dr. Nikolai Bezroukov. www.softpanorama.org was created as a service to the UN Sustainable Development Networking Programme (SDNP) in the author free time. This document is an industrial compilation designed and created exclusively for educational use and is distributed under the Softpanorama Content License.

The site uses AdSense so you need to be aware of Google privacy policy. You you do not want to be tracked by Google please disable Javascript for this site. This site is perfectly usable without Javascript.

Original materials copyright belong to respective owners. Quotes are made for educational purposes only in compliance with the fair use doctrine.

FAIR USE NOTICE This site contains copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. We are making such material available to advance understanding of computer science, IT technology, economic, scientific, and social issues. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided by section 107 of the US Copyright Law according to which such material can be distributed without profit exclusively for research and educational purposes.

This is a Spartan WHYFF (We Help You For Free) site written by people for whom English is not a native language. Grammar and spelling errors should be expected. The site contain some broken links as it develops like a living tree...

You can use PayPal to make a contribution, supporting development of this site and speed up access. In case softpanorama.org is down you can use the at softpanorama.info

Disclaimer:

The statements, views and opinions presented on this web page are those of the author (or referenced source) and are not endorsed by, nor do they necessarily reflect, the opinions of the author present and former employers, SDNP or any other organization the author may be associated with. We do not warrant the correctness of the information provided or its fitness for any purpose.

Last modified: August 13, 2017